Pinus nigra ssp. nigra
(= P. nigra var. austriaca, P. austriaca)
From Austria to central Italy, Greece and Yugoslavia, on medium deep to shallow, moderately nutrient-rich, well-drained, sandy or loamy soils, frequently on limestone.
Imposing, large conifer, when young broadly conical with chandelier-like, symmetrical branches, in maturity with a picturesque, broadly spreading, often umbrella-shaped, flattened crown. Fast growing.
Height 20m-30m (45m), Breite 8m-10m (15m)
Deeply and coarsely furrowed, grey-black scaly bark, in maturity very decorative.
Evergreen, in pairs, distinctively dark green and stiff, prickly, 8 to 16 cm long
Cones are 5 to 9 cm long, almost symmetrical, light brown, empty cones are shed in spring.
Main roots are strong, deep.
Undemanding, on all dry to moist, well-drained, even nutrient-poor soils, acid to strongly alkaline, thrives even on humus-free, dry, hot limestone (karst regions on the Mediterranean).
Reliably frost tolerant, very good wind resistance, relatively tolerant of salt, unusually tolerant of heat and summer drought, withstands chronic exposure to atmospheric pollution by SO2, tolerates urban sites.
Solitary, ornamental tree.
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